Reach Us +441414719275
All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Lung Ultrasound in COPD and Bronchial Asthma-Measurements of Lung Deformation with our Novel Imaging Approach.

Ernesto Delgado Cidranes1*,Zuramis Estrada Blanco2, Miguel Ángel Fernández Vaquero3

1Founder and Medical Director Advanced Pain Management Center; Ruber Hospital Madrid, Spain

2Medical Coordinator Advanced Pain Management Center, Sureste Hospital, Madrid, Spain

3Medical Coordinator Advanced Pain Management Center, Gómez Ulla Military Hospital, Madrid, Spain

*Corresponding Author:
Ernesto Delgado Cidranes
Department of Anesthesiology
Pain Medicine and Ultrasound
Ruber Hospital of Madrid, Spain
Tel: 0034-91-111-9301
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: October 06, 2015; Accepted date: October 07, 2015; Published date: October 08, 2015

Citation: Cidranes ED, Blanco ZE, Vaquero MÁF. Lung Ultrasound in COPD and Bronchial Asthma-Measurements of Lung Deformation with our Novel Imaging Approach. Insights Allergy Asthma Bronchitis. 2015, 1:1. doi:10.21767/2471-304X.100006

 
Visit for more related articles at Journal of Clinical Immunology and Allergy

Abstract

Background: Ultrasound examination pulmonary 3D/4D, elastography and strain rate will constitute a revolution in the coming years. The strain measures the degree of deformation and allows the pulmonary regional and global quantification. It is reproducible and not time consuming. The study aims to evaluate the behavior of the bronchial structure in patients with COPD and asthma using the methods of strain and strain rate (SR).

Methods: The study included critically ill adult patients with early, severe COPD (n = 21) and bronchial asthma (n = 12) were included retrospectively, as well as healthy controls (n = 11). Standard lung ultrasound examinations, including 3D/4D análysis, Elastography, were identified and the studies were then reanalysed for assessment of lung strain using speckle-tracking. Lung tracing of the lung was performed in pleural space, pulmonar parenchyma, bronchial estructures and lung vascular estructures determining the longitudinal score and free wall strain in each subject. Spirometry was performed in all patients.

Results: Compared to the control group (healthy subjects) it found that all patients in both groups showed changes the degree of deformation. In 81% of patients with COPD Spirometry showed a mixed pattern (obstructive and restrictive) and 80% of them improved by applying bronchial bronchodilator therapy in the time of scanning. 100% of asthmatic patients had obstructive spirometric pattern and post bronchodilator to treat me there was improvement at all. During the analysis it was found that the values of critical deformation in 12 patients with COPD lines showed increased lung B, the expression of pulmonary congestion.

Conclusions: The study shows that longitudinal and global analysis of bronchial deformation can detect measurable changes in COPD and moderate to severe asthma. With increased pulmonary congestion and there is greater presence of lines B values deformation lung is affected. No patients with COPD and Asthma regular strain had worsened.

Introduction

During recent years, velocity imaging, displacement imaging and deformation imaging (strain and strain-rate imaging) have emerged as valuable tools for more comprehensive and reliable echocardiographic assessment of myocardial function [1,2]. The deformation can also be expressed relative to the length at a previous time instance (natural strain) and in this definition of instantaneous strain the reference value is not constant over the time but changes during the deformation process [3].

Lung ultrasound is a basic application of critical ultrasound, defined as a loop associating urgent diagnoses with immediate therapeutic decisions [4].

Ultrasound examination pulmonary 3D/4D (Figure 1) elastography and strain rate will constitute a revolution in the coming years [5]. The strain measures the degree of deformation and allows the pulmonary regional and global quantification. It is reproducible and not time consuming. The study aims to evaluate the behavior of the bronchial structure in patients with COPD and asthma using the methods of strain and strain rate (SR). Spirometry was performed in all patients.

asthma-and-bronchitis-Lung-ultrasound-volumetric

Figure 1: Lung ultrasound volumetric 3D / 4D allows visualization of the lung parenchyma objective; essential to identify the target which we will measure the strain element.

In the right image we can see the air bronchogram 3D/4D. We show bronchial permeability and radial measurement site of a bronchus to integrate it into their analysis of deformation. The measurements are performed in inspiration and expiration. The characteristics of the air bronchogram ultrasound guidance are important in the diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases [6].

When applying the 3D/4D volumes observed in normal lung increased lines A constantly moving up and down following the respiratory movement (bellows type). When the lung has less air and there is a tendency to alveolar collapse laminating lines to decrease and is a sign that could have a future value in the evolution and prediction of lung pathology in apparently normal lung by B-mode sonography [7,8].

The study included critically ill adult patients with early, severe COPD (n = 21) and bronchial asthma (n = 12) were included retrospectively, as well as healthy controls (n = 11) (Figure 2). Standard lung ultrasound examinations, including 3D/4D análysis, Elastography, were identified and the studies were then reanalysed for assessment of lung strain using speckle-tracking. Lung tracing of the lung was performed in pleural space, pulmonar parenchyma, bronchial estructures and lung vascular estructures determining the longitudinal score and free wall strain in each subject (Figure 3).

asthma-and-bronchitis-Map-main-variables-studied

Figure 2: Map of main variables studied.

asthma-and-bronchitis-elastography-pulmonary-analysis

Figure 3:Photographic sequence, strain rate of lung parenchyma, elastography and pulmonary analysis 3D / 4D allowing objectively locate the target of the study. The images on the right show the ultrasound deformation curves during inspiration and expiration.

Special Remarks

In the study we have obtained our own reference values for pulmonary strain on the healthy patient. Values that continue being analyzed to achieve a standard that allows us to obtain better results and ensure reproducibility of our research.

The three major strains analyzed

1- Longitudinal overall

2- Overall circumference

3- Radial overall

orrect identification of the pleural space is the key because it is extraordinary element baseline variability in lung tissue. Exploring 3D/4D allows objectively know how deep the bronchial and vascular structures within the lung parenchyma.

This allows knowing the degree of deformation of the structure bronchial and lung parenchyma in inspiration and expiration. The strain used was overall longitudinal and global circumference. The speed measured by tissue Doppler measures the longitudinal velocity (VL), pulmonary components moving towards or away from the transducer (Figure 4).

asthma-and-bronchitis-Strain-inspiratory-expiratory

Figure 4: Strain inspiratory and expiratory.

In all patients with decreasing longitudinal deformation and overall circumference between lung segments it is consistent with the presence of bronchial obstruction in 100% of cases; provided that the target is in the walls of the bronchial structure.

The lower global longitudinal strain of -20% has a negative predictive value 80% for moderate to severe bronchial obstruction.

Conclusions

Strain and strain-rate imaging in lung ultrasound is a promising tool for the evaluation of myocardial function.

The study shows that longitudinal and global analysis of bronchial deformation can detect measurable changes in COPD and moderate to severe asthma.

With increased pulmonary congestion and there is greater presence of lines B values deformation lung is affected.

Strain and strain rate data also provide valuable prognostic information, especially in predicting regression to the normal lung function.

References

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Viewing options

Post your comment

Share This Article

Flyer image
 

Post your comment

captcha   Reload  Can't read the image? click here to refresh